What Are Nightshades and Why Are They Toxic?

Nightshades encompass a diverse group of plants known for their varied culinary uses and nutritional properties.

Common Nightshades:

  • Tomatoes
  • Potatoes
  • Peppers
  • Eggplant
  • Tobacco 
  • Goji Berries
  • Tomatillos
  • Cape Gooseberries aka Peruvian Groundcherry
  • Ashwagandha

However, lurking beneath their appealing appearance lies a range of toxins that can pose challenges for some individuals.

  1. Lectins: These indigestible proteins can wreak havoc on the gut wall, leading to symptoms such as gas, bloating, and eventually vitamin deficiencies. Over time, lectins can contribute to a host of health issues, making it crucial to monitor their intake.
  2. Oxalates: Oxalates are organic acids that bind to minerals, hindering their absorption. This can result in kidney stones, chronic pain, dehydration, fatigue, and more. Moreover, oxalate crystals can accumulate in various body tissues over time, with kidney stones being a common manifestation.
  3. Glycoalkaloids / Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Glycoalkaloids act as defense mechanisms against insects. They disrupt the activity of our cholinesterase enzymes, impacting neurotransmitter balance and potentially leading to symptoms such as muscle spasms, fatigue, anxiety, and migraines.
  4. Salicylate: Another natural chemical found in plants, salicylate serves as a protective mechanism against disease and pests. While it may have anti-inflammatory properties for some individuals, it can trigger adverse reactions in others.

Some of these toxins can have cumulative effects over time. While you may not notice the issue immediately, it could manifest as a problem in the future. Regrettably, by the time symptoms arise, the damage may already be done.

These plant toxins can pose particular challenges for individuals with conditions such as BCHE gene variants, MCAS, autoimmune diseases, pesticide or herbicide poisoning, kidney or liver disease, certain cancers, and even pregnancy hormones. Some individuals may experience allergies to nightshades, although this is not considered a common allergen.

Understanding and managing sensitivities to nightshades can be complex, as alkaloid and oxalate contents can vary depending on factors such as cultivation, storage, and preparation methods. For instance, potatoes exposed to light or stored at room temperature may exhibit higher alkaloid levels, which can be toxic, especially for those with sensitivities. Potatoes need to be stored in a dark cellar between 45-50°F (7.2-10°C). Additionally, while removing potato skins can reduce alkaloid content, cooking does not eliminate these toxins.

The oxalate content of nightshades can vary based on factors such as variety, growing conditions, and cooking methods. While all plants contain oxalates, some, like potatoes, may have higher levels than others.

Understanding these nuances can empower individuals to make informed choices about their dietary habits and optimize their health and well-being. In subsequent sections, we’ll delve deeper into plant foods in the nightshade family and where they can be hidden.

Avoiding Nightshades:

Avoiding nightshades may seem straightforward initially, but navigating their hidden presence in various foods can be challenging. Unlike the top eight allergens, nightshades are not required to be listed on food labels in the US, making it difficult for individuals to identify and avoid them. However, heightened awareness of the potential adverse effects of nightshades could prompt their inclusion among the top allergens in the future, similar to the trajectory of gluten. Avoiding nightshades today is akin to the challenges faced in avoiding gluten three decades ago, especially given the prevalence of nightshade-derived ingredients in processed foods. Many gluten-free products, for example, substitute gluten with potato, exacerbating the difficulty of steering clear of nightshades. Therefore, prioritizing whole, unprocessed foods and minimizing reliance on gluten-free processed foods can facilitate adherence to a nightshade-free diet.

Hidden Nightshades


  • Paprika (may also be used for coloring in natural products)
  • Cayenne
  • Red Pepper
  • Capsicum
  • Seasoning Salts
  • Many Seasoning Mixes
  • Any food or beverage label that just says “Spices” or “Natural Flavors” (pretty much everything processed)

Black pepper and Szechwan are not nightshades and perfectly safe to consume on a nightshade free diet (except when following AIP). Black pepper is high in oxalates, so you may want to omit it on an elimination diet.

Starches & Food Additives (not a complete list)

With the exception of potato starch, the other food additives may or may not contain nightshades. The only way to find out is to write to the manufacturer. Manufacturers can hide a lot of nightshades and other junk under “Natural Flavors”. Sometimes they will tell you if their natural flavors contain nightshades, and some will not. They consider it “proprietary information”. If they tell you that, it’s big red flag to not buy from that brand. This is one of the many reasons why processed foods are a problem.

  • Potato starch
  • Modified food starch
  • Starch
  • Vitamin A palmitate
  • Maltodextrin
  • Dextrin
  • Dextrose
  • Some yeast
  • Some baking powders
  • Some salts
  • Natural flavors
  • Natural colors (paprika, eggplant, and goji berries can be used for coloring)
  • Artificial coloring (most have modified food starch)
  • Thautamin II (hidden on labels as natural flavor in the US)
  • Solnul (resistant starch)


  • Marinades
  • Dressings
  • Most Condiments (even mayo, mustard, pickles, and ranch can have nightshades)

Vitamins & Supplements:

  • Some types of Vitamin A
  • Some types of Vitamin C
  • Magnesium Stearate (may or may not have nightshades)
  • Lycopene (some)
  • Ashwagandha
  • Zeaxanthin (some)
  • Food-based vitamins/Multi-Vitamins
  • Starch is added to some vitamins, especially chewable.
  • Some probiotics (potatoes can be used in the growth process)
  • Superfoods or wheatgrass products may have tomato, bell pepper, or goji berries.
  • Some protein powders and drinks.
  • Homeopathics with belladonna

Some vitamins you can read through the label and easily find nightshades – for example, the companies that market their vitamins as food-based, usually have tomato, pepper, or potato listed. Most vitamin labels are not as obvious. Unfortunately, we have to reach out to the manufacturer to confirm if their vitamins are nightshade free. Unless your vitamins are nightshade free, don’t take them while you are testing yourself for an intolerance. I can recommend a clean electrolyte and magnesium.


  • Starch is often used in medications as an inactive ingredient. This list has some of them.
  • Medications with coatings can contain potato.
  • Topical Pain Relief Creams: Some topical pain relief creams or ointments may contain ingredients derived from nightshade plants, such as capsicum (from chili peppers), which is used for its analgesic properties.
  • TropanesAtropine and Scopolamine: These medications are derived from plants in the nightshade family, such as Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), and are used for various medical purposes, including as antispasmodics, antiemetics, and mydriatics.
  • Nicotine Replacement Therapies: Nicotine, a stimulant found in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum), is sometimes used in nicotine replacement therapies to help individuals quit smoking.
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors: People who are sensitive to nightshades, may have issues with these medications. This includes medication used for eye dilation.

It’s important to note that while some medications and supplements may contain ingredients derived from nightshade plants, the presence of these ingredients does not necessarily mean that the product is harmful. Many medications and supplements containing nightshade ingredients are considered safe and effective when used as directed by healthcare professionals.

However, individuals who have known allergies, sensitivities, or intolerances to nightshade plants should exercise caution and consult with a healthcare provider before using medications or supplements that may contain these ingredients. Additionally, individuals following specific dietary restrictions or alternative medicine practices may also wish to avoid medications and supplements containing nightshade ingredients.


If you’ve had reactions to dairy in the past, make sure you were not reacting to the hidden nightshades in dairy products. Pre-shredded cheese, or pre-crumbled cheeses needs to be checked for potato starch – it’s used as an anti-caking agent. Potato starch and modified food starch can be added to yogurts and ice cream.

You may want to avoid low-fat dairy products. Low-fat products are a processed food.  When they remove the fat, they remove the vitamins. Then they add vitamins from other sources back in. If you drink milk or eat yogurt, stick to whole milk and full fat yogurt, and grate your own cheese.

Non-Dairy Products

Almost all non-dairy cheese has potato starch or potato flour. If you react to nut milks, it’s possible it could be the additives. Or you may be reacting to oxalates. Almond milk is very high in oxalates. If you have to use a non-dairy milk substitute, coconut milk is low oxalate.

It’s really hard to find any vegan or vegetarian products that are nightshade free.


Beverages are probably another place you forget to check the labels. Nightshades can be used for coloring in teas and sodas. For example, they will use paprika in peached colored teas and sodas. Dr. Pepper and some formulas of Root beer are also a problem. Alcoholic beverages, such as vodka can be made from potato and some liquors can have nightshades. Sometimes hot chocolate can have cayenne pepper. And of course, don’t forget the obvious beverages made from tomato like V8, and Bloody Mary’s.


Most processed meats will have some form a nightshades. Some have paprika or other nightshade seasonings. Some processed meats may have additives such as dextrose and potato starch.

Potato starch is often added to chicken, including rotisserie chicken, canned chicken, and lunch meats. Unless it’s raw, unseasoned, and you cook it yourself, it’s likely to have nightshades. Canned tuna is another place where nightshades can be hidden.

Bacon and sausages have to be checked for “spices” and most patties (salmon, turkey, hamburgers) all have to be checked for spices and potato starch. There are a few safe brands out there.

Almost all hotdogs have paprika, and almost all buns have potato starch.


Some food products have vegetable broth added. It can also be difficult to find store bought broth that doesn’t contain nightshades. They often have unlabeled seasonings, flavors, or they may list tomato or potato in the ingredients. This also means that most soups will contain nightshades.

Baked Goods & Cereal Products

While grains are not nightshades, poisonous tropane alkaloids have been found in many processed grain & legume products. Most non-edible nightshades are weeds and they can be very poisonous. Crops are often harvested and processed with these poisonous weeds and the alkaloids end up in the food. A study released in 2023 showed many baked good & cereals tested positive for tropane alkaloids.

Baked goods can also have potato flour, potato starch, modified food starch, or be made with baking powder or salt that can contain potato. Gluten free products are more likely to have potato ingredients.

Potato water is also used to enhance the texture of bread. The ingredient label will not say potato water, it just says water. Potato water is the water that potatoes have been boiled in. The potatoes release starch into the water as they are cooked.

Sweet Potato Products

Sweet potatoes are NOT nightshades and may be safe if you prepare them yourself. Otherwise, sweet potatoes are often cooked in the same oil as regular french fries. Sweet potato fries can also be coated with potato starch or seasoned with nightshade spices. Sweet potatoes are also high in oxalates. If you eat them and react, it could be any of those things. It’s best to keep them out of your elimination diet.

Nightshades in Body Products

This may not be an issue for everyone, but it has caused problems for some, like me. We have found potato starch in lotion and lipstick. We have also encountered lotion that didn’t have anything obvious on the label – but after reacting to it, I wrote to the manufacturer and found out the natural coloring comes from eggplant.

There may be a lot of ingredients made from potato. We don’t know. We recommend buying organic products. The labels and ingredient lists are much easier to read and understand. There is such a thing as organic potato starch – so be careful. Just because it’s organic, doesn’t mean it’s a free pass.

Household Products

  • Envelope glue – I’ve personally never encountered this, but I don’t do a lot of snail mail.
  • Laundry starch used for ironing can be made from potato. We have reacted to a very starchy book bag.

Nightshades in Your Yard

Wear gloves if you are doing yard work. Some nightshades are weeds and might be hiding with your flowers in garden beds. Or some nightshades are ornamentals, like petunias.

Pesticides & Herbicides

The alkaloids in nightshades require the same enzymes to detox as chemical pesticides and herbicides. If you have a nightshade sensitivity, then it’s possible you also have a sensitivity to pesticides and herbicides.

Try to eat organic on your nightshade free diet. If you would like to learn more about this, please visit Anne Wright’s blog on this topic.

Also avoid the use of pesticides and herbicides around your home and yard.


The problem with GMO products, they have had their DNA changed with DNA from another plant or living organism. There is a GMO sweetener that is usually hidden as “natural flavor” on US food labels. It’s called Thautamin II. Made from Nicotiana benthamiana and Thautamim. 

I’m not sure what other frankenfoods they’ve created using nightshades.

Eating Out

While you are testing yourself for a nightshade intolerance, it’s best to not eat out. If you have to eat out, you’ll need to make a card explaining all of the above in a nutshell. We have one – we’ll post what we put on it and you can make your own.

Don’t bother with fast food. Look for places that have organic food and make everything from scratch. Even places that make their food fresh, may not be safe – too much of a risk with cross-contamination. I have found 2 places that can make me a nightshade free pizza. But both places have also poisoned me because of cross-contamination.

Also when eating out, be careful with biodegradable to-go containers and cutlery. They can have potato ingredients. We have heard of some people reacting to these.

Preparing Nightshades for Other People

If lotion can poison us, then you should wear gloves when handling nightshades or washing dishes.
Be careful with powdered nightshades such as spices, superfoods, pancake mix, etc. Wear a mask if you have to.

Some of us can’t be in a restaurant or a home where nightshades are being prepared. Also just smelling peppers being prepared can also trigger a reaction. It all depends on your level of sensitivity.

Other Cholinesterase Inhibitor Foods

This is a list of foods that can inhibit cholinesterase and might cause a similar reaction to nightshades. Although I don’t know if they can inhibit as much as nightshades. I personally have reactions to coffee, but I do okay with decaf. We have also reacted to Dragonfruit at our home. I have not experienced a strong reaction from any others on this list. If you remove nightshades are still having a similar reaction after eating, address the items on this list:

  • Caffeine
  • Dragon fruit
  • Mint
  • Blueberries
  • Rosemary
  • Cinnamon
  • Saffron
  • Fenugreek
  • Turmeric
  • Saffron
  • Licorice
  • Iniand/Tulsi/Holy Basil
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Ginseng
  • Aspartame
  • Tea Tree Oil (Body products or diffused)

High Oxalate Foods

I didn’t realize my nightshade reaction was both to the alkaloids and oxalates. If you cut out nightshades, but eat more oxalates, like I did, you may not see complete relief from all your symptoms.

The best way to learn about oxalates is to order Sally Norton’s new book, Toxic Superfoods.

Embarking on a Nightshade-Free Diet – You’ve Got This!

Discovering a sensitivity to nightshades can be a transformative journey. Embrace the feeling of wellness as you eliminate all sources of nightshades from your diet.

If you are eliminating nightshades to test yourself for a sensitivity, it will be challenging to detect if you are still getting low levels of nightshades from hidden sources. This realization came to me after 11 years of attempting to eliminate nightshades. It wasn’t until I treated nightshades like a celiac treats gluten that I finally found relief.

Some individuals may need to eliminate ALL sources of nightshades to experience complete relief. Detecting this intolerance takes time, and it’s crucial to be vigilant – READ EVERY LABEL.

Feeling great on a nightshade-free diet might be difficult if you have other unidentified food intolerances. It’s recommended to start a complete elimination diet and remove all inflammatory foods that could be causing pain, fatigue, GI problems, sleep disturbances, etc.

Exploring Specialized Diets:

Auto-Immune Paleo (AIP): The popular elimination diet that removes nightshades is Auto-Immune Paleo or AIP. While effective, it doesn’t eliminate oxalates, and one might experience oxalate reactions and auto-immune symptoms if still consuming high oxalate foods.

Detox Diet: I experimented with a Detox Diet involving salmon, steamed veggies (cauliflower, broccoli, asparagus), and a handful of rice for lunch and dinner. Although I felt good, sustaining it was challenging, and I was quick to reintroduce variety.

Low-Oxalate Diet: Consider a Low-Oxalate Diet as outlined in the Toxic Superfoods book. It distinguishes high oxalate (spinach, almonds, chard, rhubarb, beets, raspberries, chocolate, sweet potato) from low oxalate foods. Peppers and potato starch are low oxalate but exclude them when testing nightshades.

Carnivore Diet: The Carnivore diet, eliminating ALL plant toxins, proved highly healing. Despite initial hesitations, I found it satiating and easy to maintain.

Reintroduction Process:

Allow yourself up to two weeks to recover from nightshades. The longer you sustain a nightshade-free lifestyle, the more attuned you become to its positive effects. When reintroducing nightshades, proceed cautiously. Since reactions can vary, introduce each type individually, spacing them four days apart. Keep a detailed journal to track any delayed reactions that might occur 24 hours after ingestion.

Tailoring the Reintroduction:

People may experience different reactions to specific nightshades. Some might react to raw tomatoes but tolerate cooked ones, while others may find peppers troublesome but handle paprika well. Approach the reintroduction process with curiosity and patience.

Among nightshades, potato starch or modified food starch tends to elicit stronger reactions. Save this for the last phase of reintroduction.

Empower Your Journey:

We hope this guide aids you in finding the answers you seek. If you develop a heightened awareness of nightshade sensitivities, join our community on Facebook and share your super spidey senses with us!

Nightshade Free and Cholinesterase Inhibitors Sensitivity Support Group.

Next Read: What is a Butyrylcholinesterase Deficiency? – The Healing Blossom

More resources:

There is also a petition in the US to get nightshades on food labels: Petition · Recognize nightshades as an allergen and have them listed on ingredients for foods · Change.org

If you would like to learn more about nightshades and cholinesterase inhibitors. I highly recommend reading these web-sites:

Disclaimer: Embarking on a new diet, particularly one that involves significant changes like eliminating specific food groups, should be approached with careful consideration. Before making substantial alterations to your diet, it is advisable to consult with a qualified healthcare professional or nutritionist. Individual responses to dietary changes can vary, and what works well for one person may not be suitable for another. This information is intended to provide insights based on personal experiences and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always prioritize your health and well-being by seeking personalized guidance from a healthcare expert.

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  1. Ellie Libby says:

    Thank you for this most comprehensive article on Nightshades. I have known about my nightshade sensitivity for almost 40 years. It has been a real challenge to over time to figure it out. So little was available back in the early years of my issues. Unfortunately there is so much misinformation and lack of thorough information on the internet today as so many who fail to understand the depth of the issue have jumped on the bandwagon.
    The one subject I did not see in your article is on pain relief products. Almost EVERY pain relief product I research contains a nightshade. It can be most frustrating.
    Yours is the BEST article I have found to date. Job well done.

    1. Thank you Ellie! Yes medications are a struggle. Regular Tylenol – just the plain white capsule does not contain any potato or nightshades. If I need ibuprofen, I get a prescription – with plain white tablets.

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